CBD (cannabidiol) has been a hugely popular drug in the last few years. Although CBD was initially discovered to be an effective self-medication in Dravet syndrome, it is now used for a variety of other medical conditions. CBD oil is the most well-known form of CBD oil, a nonpsychoactive component of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). There are many sellers and producers of CBD oils on the market today, with many more. There are many people involved in the process, from small-scale oil preparation for friends and family (Facebook), to licensed cannabis producers, compounding pharmacies, pharmaceutical firms, and licensed cannabis producers. There are still many questions about CBD’s legality, safety, and quality. This is despite its increasing availability. It is not clear whether CBD is a food supplement, a new investigational medicine, or a narcotic. This paper examines the risks and issues associated with CBD products for Beer and offers recommendations for improved regulatory control that is based on precise labeling and scientifically supported claims. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of both the benefits and the risks associated with the current production, use, and marketing of CBD products.
What is CBD Oil?
CBD oil (Cannabidiol) is essentially a concentrated extract of cannabis flowers or leaves. It is then dissolved in an edible oils such as hemp, sunflower or olive oil. There are many solvents that can be used, ranging from innocuous organic solvents like ethanol and isopropyl alcohol, to more dangerous ones such as naphtha, petroleum-ether, or supercritical fluids like butane, CO 2. The final product’s taste, color and viscosity will depend on the solvents used. Many other plant components are also co-extracted from the herbal material. This is called “winterization” and it can sometimes be used to remove them. For example, components with a higher melting temperature such as waxes, triglycerides, and chlorophyll can be stored in the freezer for up to 24 hours. This can greatly improve the flavor and color of the final product.
There are many concentrations of CBD and tetrahydrocannabinols (THC) in cannabis oils. This is largely dependent on the type of cannabis used to extract it. CBD oil is the most well-known product, but cannabigerol and other cannabinoids rich oils have been found including terpenes [ 2], which will likely be followed by others soon. THC-rich cannabis oil is well-known and has been around for a while. These products may contain terpenes, but it depends on how they were prepared [ 4]. Terpenes are volatile and can be destroyed by high temperatures, such as during drying plant materials or the evaporation solvents. It is possible to capture evaporated Terpenes through condensation and then reintroduce them into final oil. To further alter properties like color, viscosity or shelf-life stability, additional ingredients can be used.
Many medical users of cannabis and cannabinoids have made oil their preferred method of administration. This is for a variety of reasons. Concentrated extracts are a convenient way to consume a high dose of cannabinoids, in a small amount and easy to digest. CBD oil is safe and non-toxic. [ 6] This allows for greater consumption than THC-rich products. People who choose to use herbal cannabis instead of smoking or vaping it worry about stigmatization. Cannabis oil does not have a smell that could identify someone as a cannabis user. It can also be discreetly used in social settings, such as at work or with family members. It can also be dosed efficiently by simply counting how many drops were consumed. The same benefits of using concentrated cannabis extract were discovered in a survey of medicinal cannabis users in 2013, [ 7]. This may have been an indicator of the rise of cannabis oils as a preferred method for ingestion. The market is moving towards patentable, more advanced products such as oral capsules and liposomal creams.
Therapeutic effects of CBD
CBD can be used to treat a variety of medical conditions. It all began with a serendipitous discovery by parents who tried self-medication with their children. CBD has a therapeutic effect in treating Dravet syndrome, a severe form of epilepsy. The clinical trial of Epidiolex(r), a pharmaceutical CBD product, is underway with promising results. Because of its positive effect on children with severe illnesses, CBD was able to quickly become a popular medicine [ 11]. There are other medical conditions that CBD can be used for, which have been supported by some clinical evidence. These include schizophrenia [ 13], Parkinson’s disease [ 12], and anxiety disorder[ 14]. Despite the rapid increase in research on CBD’s therapeutic properties, not all current CBD uses are supported by clinical evidence. These products are so popular that doctors may have to be aware of the effects of CBD oil, even if they don’t prescribe it.
One excellent example is the self-medicating with CBD (and THC) products to treat cancer. Preclinical evidence is growing that cannabinoids are capable of inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis in cancer cells. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms. 16 While this is exciting news, there is still no clinical evidence to prove that cannabinoids, whether synthetic or natural, can be used safely and effectively to treat cancer in humans [ 17]. There are even indications that some types of cancer might be more aggressive when cannabinoids are used [ 18]. Patients who refuse to undergo chemotherapy because of their belief in cannabinoids’ curative properties, are at risk. It is important to treat cancer with cannabinoids with care and distinction based on the type of cancer [ 19].
CBD oil is being promoted more as a prophylactic remedy to prevent certain diseases. It is believed that the human endocannabinoid systems is involved in basic functions like appetite, reproduction and pain management [ 20]. The CBD acts as an indirect antagonist of human CB 1 and CB 2 receptors [ 21]. This protects the nervous system and immune systems from daily stress. CBD has been shown to be an effective antioxidant that helps protect against stress [ 22]. This clearly increases the demand for CBD products but it also weakens the scientific foundation for CBD’s therapeutic use. It is difficult to prove scientifically that CBD products prevented a disease.
The impact of CBD oil’s widespread use could be acceptable if it was only used by well-informed and healthy adults. This is not true as CBD oil is actively promoted for children (e.g. for Dravet syndrome or ADHD, autism), older people (Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and patients with complex diseases like cancer, multiple sclerosis (chronic pain), and pets (anxiety/appetite, sleep). These consumers may have issues with CBD if they use it in an indiscriminate manner. CBD has a lot of potential to treat epilepsy in children. However, the long-term effects on children’s brain functions from high-dose CBD are not clear. There are strong clues that the neuronal development and function of the endocannabinoid systems in the brain of adolescents [ 23]. To stop the spread of unsubstantiated health claims about CBD products, various countries’ health authorities have started sending warning letters to sellers and producers [ 24, 25].